Women who run for office inspire others to do the same, study suggests A CU Boulder graduate student and other researchers find strong evidence that female candidates inspire others to run. Read more What we’ve found is that if there is such a thing as altruistic third-party punishment, it really unfolds under a very specific, very restricted set of circumstances. The horizon of real-life events to which that original finding is applicable is really narrow.” Stalking the dirt vaccine Can good bacteria make the brain more stress-resilient? Christopher Lowry has dedicated his career to finding out. Read more Eric Pedersen“We’ve drastically overestimated the extent to which we think that third parties are willing to intervene on behalf of strangers,” said Eric Pedersen, assistant professor of social psychology at CU Boulder and the study’s lead author. “Our findings highlight how important it is for researchers to make sure they’re testing ideas in a multitude of different ways to make sure we get converging evidence from different methodologies.”Using economic gamesSince at least the early 2000s, psychologists have been studying whether humans evolved to altruistically punish people who act badly toward strangers. The most common way researchers have tried to answer this question is with laboratory-based economic games in which participants can pay to “punish” another participant who had purportedly harmed someone. In those experiments, participants tend to punish others for treating strangers unfairly. The working theory is that humans have evolved this way in order to encourage cooperation in society.“There has been lots of research suggestions that people are very, very willing to engage in third-party punishment when they don’t have a personal stake in the conflict,” Pedersen said.However, Pedersen and his colleagues weren’t convinced that these economic games were the best way to test this concept. In essence, the researchers guessed that people were being influenced by the setup of the experiments, a concept known as experimental demand.“If you ask people to focus their attention on the idea that a third party has been unfair toward another person, and then invite that person to invest a little of their own income in punishing that unfair third party, they will do it,” said Michael McCullough, a psychology professor at the University of Miami and one of the study’s co-authors. “But, if any of those pieces are missing, you don’t get punishment. What we’ve found is that if there is such a thing as altruistic third-party punishment, it really unfolds under a very specific, very restricted set of circumstances. The horizon of real-life events to which that original finding is applicable is really narrow.”Designing robust testsThe team decided to test the theory of altruistic third-party punishment in a new way, using five experiments that did not involve economic games. The experiments varied, however, in that a person either insulted the participant directly, insulted a stranger or insulted a friend of the participant. Then, researchers gave the participant the opportunity to blast an annoying sound at the bad actor, letting them choose the duration and volume. In another experiment, participants simply imagined that a person had insulted them directly or had insulted a stranger. The paradox of ‘suicide in happy places’ seems not to exist A closer look at geographic data finds no correlation between generally happy locales and rates of suicide, according to research by CU Boulder and U of California Irvine. Read more Published: Aug. 18, 2018 • By Sarah Kuta CU Boulder research contradicts the long-held belief that humans interfere when they see the abuse of strangersPicture this: You’re walking down the street when you overhear someone spewing nasty insults at a stranger. Would you intervene, even if it meant putting yourself in harm’s way?While most of us would like to think we’d step in, even going so far as to punish the bad actor, new research led by the University of Colorado Boulder suggests that might not be the case.The study, published in April in the Journal of Experimental Psychology, adds a new, contradictory perspective to the established wisdom that humans have evolved to punish people who mistreat strangers, even when intervening could lead to social costs. In their paper “The Unresponsive Avenger: More Evidence That Disinterested Third Parties Do Not Punish Altruistically,” a team of researchers tested this scientifically accepted theory using a novel set of experiments. Their findings suggest that, on average, people aren’t inclined to selflessly punish people who abuse strangers, except for when they are faced with a very specific set of conditions in a lab. Taken together, the findings contradicted past research, suggesting that people will punish others who have harmed them directly or who have harmed a friend, but will not punish someone who has harmed a stranger.“The fact that people did not take advantage of an opportunity to punish on behalf of strangers, despite the lack of barriers to doing so, was striking,” said William McAuliffe, a psychology graduate student at the University of Miami and one of the paper’s co-authors. “Participants had no reason to fear retaliation from the insulter and did not have to pay a price to punish, as they do in the economic game method. This suggests that most participants were truly quite apathetic that some other stranger was insulted in an unwarranted way.”The researchers note that their study has limitations and caution that their findings assess average human behavior, noting that there will always be exceptional “heroes” who intervene on behalf of strangers.“There are always individual differences, and our experiments are no exception in that regard,” McAuliffe said.“Experiments are not well-equipped to make all-or-nothing statements about human nature anyhow. They are better equipped to demonstrate what is typical under various circumstances. Exceptional behavior is better documented by studying real-world heroes.”Training bystanders effectivelyThough the researchers say that more work needs to be done to better understand third-party punishment, their recent findings have important scientific and practical implications. In the psychology community, the paper challenges a widely held theory that scientists use as a starting point for other research and arguments, which points to the acute need for further study in this area. “(The paper) casts serious doubts on these assumptions, and going forward, it’s important to use a variety of methods in addition to what we have used in this paper, such as going out into the field and using real-world data so we can get convergence on what might the best approximate answer,” said Pedersen, who started this research as a graduate student at the University of Miami.In the real world, the findings reinforce the usefulness of a criminal justice system that doles out punishment on behalf of strangers. For people who create policies or programs intended to improve human cooperation and behavior—programs to prevent bullying in schools, for example—the findings suggest that people need help intervening. Since the research suggests that stepping in on behalf of strangers is not a natural tendency, people need to be made aware of the innate psychological barriers they’re up against and given strategies for overcoming them. In addition, the findings highlight the importance of tools that don’t require direct confrontation, such as anonymous tip lines and ombuds offices, Pedersen said. “We can really try to prompt people to be on the lookout for their own reluctance to intervene and find a way to do something,” Pedersen said. “We can incentivize people to step up in various ways by making it clear that there are benefits to standing up for others or highlight ways in which people can intervene without putting themselves in harm’s way.” Share Share via TwitterShare via FacebookShare via LinkedInShare via E-mail Related Articles Tags:Fall 2018Print 2018Psychology and NeuroscienceResearch
RelatedWestmoreland Steps Up Fight Against Mosquito Borne Diseases Advertisements The Ministry of Local Government and Community Development has received two far-reaching draft policies that will deter citizens from illegal dumping and littering.They are the draft National Solid Waste Management (Disposal of Solid Waste) Regulations, 2014 and the draft National Solid Waste (Public Cleansing) Regulations, 2014.Making his contribution to the 2014/15 Sectoral Debate in the House of Representatives on Tuesday, June 17, Portfolio Minister, Hon. Noel Arscott said the draft policies were submitted by the Office of the Parliamentary Counsel.The National Solid Waste Management (Disposal of Solid Waste) Regulations, 2014 regulates the kinds of material, which may be disposed of at a landfill and the manner in which such disposal is done.“The regulations also seek to impose tipping fees on users of a landfill based on the waste burden put on the landfill by those users,” he said.Outlining the purpose of the draft National Solid Waste (Public Cleansing) Regulations, 2014 he said these are designed to maintain a clean public environment by providing for the proper storage, conveyance and disposal of waste, with provision for penalties where the regulations are contravened.He noted that the regulations also clearly outline the roles and responsibilities of the citizens, waste haulers, and the National Solid Waste Management Authority (NSWMA) in matters of waste management.The Minister said the drafts have already been the subject of consultations with a wide cross-section of stakeholders, including the National Environment and Planning Agency (NEPA), the Ministry of Health, the police, private waste haulers, persons in academia, the business sector, the Environmental Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO), and members of the public.“I will also ensure that the requisite public education takes place,” he said.He lamented that “when you drive past some of the island’s major gullies and drains, it is a disgrace”.The Minister insisted that, “our citizens continue to dump garbage in the drains while we turn a blind eye. We all need to understand and accept that ‘Jamaica’s beauty is our duty’. It is everybody’s business. We must stop the madness of littering our country, then weep and wail at the repercussions. We are only hurting ourselves”.He said the current fines of $2,000, and $10,000 for littering and illegal dumping, respectively, are not a deterrent. “For any sanction to be meaningful it must be felt hard,” he asserted. FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail Story HighlightsThe Ministry of Local Government and Community Development has received two far-reaching draft policies that will deter citizens from illegal dumping and littering.They are the draft National Solid Waste Management (Disposal of Solid Waste) Regulations, 2014 and the draft National Solid Waste (Public Cleansing) Regulations, 2014.The National Solid Waste Management (Disposal of Solid Waste) Regulations, 2014 regulates the kinds of material, which may be disposed of at a landfill and the manner in which such disposal is done. RelatedNSWMA to Establish Transfer Station in Westmoreland RelatedAdequate Funds to Clean Most Critical Drains in Corporate Area Local Government Ministry Reviewing Draft Waste Disposal Policies Local GovernmentJune 18, 2014Written by: Chris Patterson
LEESBURG, Va. — Registration for the 2015 Women’s Industry Network (WIN) Educational Conference is now open.AdvertisementClick Here to Read MoreAdvertisementThis year’s “Create & Cultivate” event is scheduled for May 4-6 at the Baltimore Waterfront Marriott and will feature speakers from within the collision repair industry along with a celebration of accomplished women in the collision industry.“We are excited to open registration and provide this opportunity for women in the industry,” said Jessica Rob, who serves as WIN’s Conference Committee co-chair. “Not only will attendees experience an engaging educational program but they will also have the opportunity to ‘Create & Cultivate’ their professional network by exchanging knowledge and experiences with fellow attendees.”Industry leader Mike Anderson will deliver the keynote address, “Choosing Your Destiny,” and will offer inspiration and guidance for creating a success story through self-determination and motivation; how to take personal responsibility for your actions; and how to purposefully create new behaviors for greater success in every area of your life.Also on the main stage are sessions designed to teach, inspire and motivate, including:Change Makes Me Happy … Or is it the Other Way Around? Paul Gange, Fix Auto USAThe Sustainable Competitive Advantage Jeff Peevy of I-CARWhat the Future Holds for Our Industry Susanna Gotsch, CCC Information Services Inc.Connected Cars/Connected Claims Sean Carey of SCG Management Consultants LLCTime Management – There’s No Such Thing Ruth Weniger of Powerful Business Strategies LLCDynamic breakout sessions will include:Reality Marketing facilitated by Cheryl Senko of Cherly Senko ConsultingBridging Silos: Using Marketing Concepts to Attract, Retain and Grow Talent facilitated by Sandra Herron of MiddleEdgeConsulting Feedback: Giving and Receiving facilitated by Marianne Godwin & Mary Yama, Mitchell InternationalRounding out the three days of inspiration and education will be the celebration of the 2015 Most Influential Women honorees, the Annual Scholarship Walk, raising funds for the WIN Scholarship Fund and the Annual Membership Meeting keeping members apprised of all things “WIN.”Advertisement“WIN welcomes women and men from all segments and all levels of professional growth within the collision industry to take part in Create and Cultivate,” said Denise Caspersen, WIN Chair. “We’re excited about the richness of the program, having the opportunity to catch up with WIN colleagues and welcoming the next generation of collision professionals.The celebration of 2015 Most Influential Women will be a wonderful reflection of the breadth of opportunity that our industry offers. It is our belief in WIN as an organization, from the membership to the sponsors to the actions of our all volunteer team, which continues to move us forward and allows us to offer this exciting educational event.”Click here for complete conference and registration information: https://www.regonline.com/builder/site/?eventid=1688941.